By Catherine Gamper and Mikaela Rambali, OECD Environment Directorate
Even if global average temperature increases are limited to below 2°C, there will still be serious climate impacts. Since pre-industrial times, we have witnessed a global average temperature increase of 1.1°C, while ocean acidity has increased by 26%. An increasing number of destructive weather-related extreme events are taking place. The intensity and scale of the wildfires that affected Australia and California in 2019-20, for example, were attributed to climate change.
Until now, efforts to mitigate and to adapt to climate change have been led by distinct policy communities, building on specific knowledge and information, and mobilising different stakeholders to address distinct technological and distributional challenges. However, the issues of mitigation and adaptation are linked and when addressed jointly, their impact and effectiveness can be reinforced. The G20 leaders recently acknowledged “the importance of fostering synergies between adaptation and mitigation, including through nature-based solutions and ecosystem based approaches”. National climate policies also reflect this synergy, such as in the UK’s Adaptation Communication issued in December 2020, which highlights the allocation of EUR 700 million from the Nature for Climate Fund to nature-based solutions that promote synergies between mitigation and adaptation.Read More
By Sigita Strumskyte, Dimitra Xynou, Amelia Smith and Shanda Moorghen, OECD Environment Directorate
On 8 March, the world will observe International Women’s Day under the theme #ChooseToChallenge. It is a day to recognise achievements, spread awareness and strengthen commitments to creating more inclusive societies, but also an opportunity to call out gender inequalities and take action. This year, it is being celebrated amidst dual health and environmental crises that have economic ramifications for all, but whose interconnected impacts risk undermining recent progress towards gender equality.
Women represent a vast share of the health care workforce, the sector most exposed to the COVID-19 pandemic. As a group, they have been severely affected by a sharp contraction in the services sector and job losses in the informal sector, while managing increased family and household responsibilities during periods of lock-down and restricted mobility. Studies show that women experience an increased occurrence of violence, exploitation, abuse and harassment during times of crisis and quarantine.Read More
By Catherine Gamper and Nicolina Lamhauge, OECD Environment Directorate
We entered 2021, full of hope that the approval of COVID-19 vaccines would bring some respite from the crisis brought about by the pandemic. With manufacturing delays, unequal access and delays in the roll-out of many vaccination plans it is becoming clear that the virus will continue to claim lives and severely affect livelihoods in the foreseeable future.
As governments continue to respond to the simultaneous health emergency and economic crisis, we must learn from our failure to prepare for what has been a well-known (pandemic) risk for many years. And there are other looming global challenges, of which climate change is among one of the most serious.Read More
By Mikaela Rambali and Catherine Gamper, OECD Environment Directorate
While the term “nature-based solutions” may have been coined relatively recently, communities worked with nature’s strengths to enhance societal resilience long before modern civilisation. For example, the Aztecs developed an agro‐hydrological system, known as the Chinampas, to build resilience against drought. They created rectangular areas of fertile arable land by dredging mud and creating canals. Not only did this technique replenish the nutrients in the soil for the crops, it also created a habitat for fish and birds, which in turn helped maintain the health of the ecosystem as well as provided additional sources of food. The drainage systems also mitigated flooding during the rainy season.
Today, over-exploitation of natural resources and intensive land-use is causing environmental degradation and an unprecedented rate of species extinction. Climate change will only accelerate these processes and add new challenges. Nature-based solutions (NbS) are attracting increasing attention as a way to address these inter-related issues.Read More
By Stefanos Fotiou, Director, Environment and Development Division, ESCAP and Anthony Cox, Deputy Director, OECD Environment Directorate
The proliferation of plastic in our society is hitting extreme levels that should be of concern to all nations. Annually, we produce around 359 million tonnes of plastic with the global market being valued at USD 568.9 billion in 2019, and projected to reach almost USD 1 trillion by 2035. Of this volume, 49.3 per cent is produced in the Asia-Pacific region. It is also where 38 per cent of all plastic is consumed.
Eight million tonnes of this plastic will end up in the world’s oceans every year, most of which is fed from rivers, which serve as direct conduits of trash from the some of the world’s fastest growing cities into the marine environment.Read More
By Kumi Kitamori and Shanda Moorghen, OECD Environment Directorate
We have built our economies on the premise that land is a primary factor of production. Much of our natural capital, such as biodiversity and ecosystem services, is based on land and there is little debate over the importance of land use for economic activity and to feed growing populations. The demographic shift in the last few decades – from just over 3 billion in 1960 to more than 7 billion – has caused a dramatic rise in the demand for food production, with land used for crops and ranching increasing at the expense of natural grasslands and forests. Farmlands account for almost 38% of the global land surface. It is expected that more than 1 billion hectares of additional land, mostly in developing countries, would be converted for agricultural use by 2050 to keep up with current trends. However, the continued pressures on land, and the ecosystem services such as water retention, carbon storage, soil health and all living organisms that it supports, are bound to bring about biodiversity loss and climate change.Read More
By Bob Diderich and Shanda Moorghen, OECD Environment Directorate
There are currently more than 23,000 chemicals produced or imported at quantities of more than one tonne per year just in Europe. We can find them in the clothes we wear, the shampoos we use, and in many other of our daily activities.
This number alone is indicative of the regulatory scope needed if this is dealt with by adopting a substance-by-substance approach in order to evaluate the safety of each chemical. Policy makers are now looking at grouping the substances as a potential solution to facilitate decision-making on chemical safety. But challenges persist.Read More
By Andrew Prag and Guy Halpern, OECD Environment Directorate
Almost all economic sectors have suffered due to the evolving COVID-19 crisis. For the oil and gas industry, already battered on one side by low prices due to an oil price war between Russia and Saudi Arabia, and on the other by the push to decarbonise the global economy, the crisis hit at an especially challenging time.
Nevertheless, an increasing number of international oil and gas companies have set out seemingly ambitious goals to transition to “net-zero” carbon emissions by 2050. What is behind these new announcements? Are they just greenwashing, or do they represent a genuine intent to transform firms in the face of the accelerating energy transition? What do the commitments mean for achieving the Paris Agreement goals, and can they help to convince governments to be bolder and to really deliver on their plans for a “green recovery” after COVID-19?Read More
Par Elsa Pilichowski, Directrice de la gouvernance publique, et Pascal Saint-Amans, Directeur du Centre de politique et d’administration fiscales
On dit que demain se construit aujourd’hui. Lorsque le président de la République française a confirmé la participation de la France à l’initiative de l’OCDE pour une budgétisation environnementale (« Paris collaborative on Green Budgeting ») en décembre 2017, il n’aurait guère pu deviner que, moins de trois ans plus tard, la budgétisation environnementale deviendrait un outil central pour amorcer une « reprise verte » de la France après une pandémie mondiale. Lors de la réunion de la Paris Collaborative on Green Budgeting qui s’est tenue au début du mois d’octobre, des responsables du Trésor français ont présenté aux délégués de l’OCDE la façon dont le gouvernement avait utilisé cet outil pour identifier des dépenses compatibles avec l’environnement afin de contribuer à l’objectif que la France s’est fixé de consacrer 30 milliards EUR de son plan de relance post-COVID-19 à la transition écologique.Read More
By Elsa Pilichowski, Director of Public Governance, and Pascal Saint-Amans, Director of the Centre for Tax Policy and Administration
It has been said that the best preparation for tomorrow is doing your best for today. When the President of the French Republic confirmed France’s participation in the Paris Collaborative on Green Budgeting in December 2017, he could hardly have known that, less than three years later, green budgeting would become a central tool for developing France’s “green recovery” from a global pandemic. At the meeting of the Paris Collaborative on Green Budgeting earlier this month, French Treasury officials showcased to delegates from across the OECD how the government had used this tool to identify environment-compatible spending that helped France meet its goal of dedicating EUR 30 billion of its COVID-19 recovery plan to a green transition.Read More